Scores of principal component in heatmap representation.

Scores of principal component in heatmap representation.Sören-Oliver Deininger, Matthias P. Ebert, Arne Fütterer, Marc Gerhard, Christoph Röcken
J. Proteome Res., 2008, 7 (12), 5230–5236

Proteomics analyses have been exploited for the discovery of novel biomarkers for the early recognition and prognostic stratification of cancer patients. These analyses have now been extended to whole tissue sections by using a new tool, that is, MALDI imaging. This allows the spatial resolution of protein and peptides and their allocation to histoanatomical structures. Each MALDI imaging data set contains a large number of proteins and peptides, and their analysis can be quite tedious. We report here a new approach for the analysis of MALDI imaging results. Mass spectra are classified by hierarchical clustering by similarity and the resulting tissue classes are compared with the histology. The same approach is used to compare data sets of different patients. Tissue sections of gastric cancer and non-neoplastic mucosa obtained from 10 patients were forwarded to MALDI-Imaging. The in situ proteome expression was analyzed by hierarchical clustering and by principal component analysis (PCA). The reconstruction of images based on principal component scores allowed an unsupervised feature extraction of the data set. Generally, these images were in good agreement with the histology of the samples. The hierarchical clustering allowed a quick and intuitive access to the multidimensional information in the data set. It allowed a quick selection of spectra classes representative for different tissue features. The use of PCA for the comparison of MALDI spectra from different patients showed that the tumor and non-neoplastic mucosa are separated in the first three principal components. MALDI imaging in combination with hierarchical clustering allows the comprehensive analysis of the in situ cancer proteome in complex human cancers. On the basis of this cluster analysis, classification of complex human tissues is possible and opens the way for specific and cancer-related in situ biomarker analysis and identification.



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